The History of Leith

Archive for 2011

Defiance and fear of Mary Queen of Scots revealed in letter to Vatican sent months before execution

Wednesday, December 28th, 2011

Mary sent letter begging for her life to Sixtus V
It is now among 100 of the most historically significant items due to go on display in Rome
She wrote the missive from her prison cell at Fotheringay Castle, Northamptonshire
Written in French she asks for forgiveness for her sins but also speaks out against falsehoods

for more click here


Friday, December 23rd, 2011

The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and Ireland, during the 17th century. Presbyterian denominations tracing their history to the Covenanters and often incorporating the name continue the ideas and traditions in Scotland and internationally.

They derive their name from the Scots term covenant for a band or legal document. There were two important covenants in Scottish history, the National Covenant and the Solemn League and Covenant. for more click here

Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden

Friday, December 23rd, 2011

Gustav II Adolf (born 9 December 1594, died 6 November 1632, O.S.) has been widely known in English by his Latinized name Gustavus Adolphus Magnus and variously in historical writings also as Gustavus, or Gustavus the Great, or Gustav Adolph the Great, (Swedish: Gustav Adolf den store, a formal distinction passed by the Swedish Parliament in 1634). He was King of Sweden (1611–1632) and founder of the Swedish Empire (or Stormaktstiden – “the era of great power”) at the beginning of the Golden Age of Sweden. He led his nation to military supremacy during the Thirty Years War, helping to determine the political as well as the religious balance of power in Europe. He is thereby regarded as one of the greatest military commanders of all time. His most notable military victory was the battle of Breitenfeld. With a superb military machine with good weapons, excellent training, and effective field artillery, backed by an efficient government which could provide necessary funds, Gustavus Adolphus was poised to make himself a major European leader, but he was killed in battle of Lützen in 1632. He was assisted by Axel Oxenstierna (1583–1654), leader of the nobles who also acted as regent after his death. for more click here

Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven

Friday, December 23rd, 2011

Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven (1582 – 4 April 1661) was a Scottish soldier in Dutch, Swedish and Scottish service. Born illegitimate and raised as a foster child, he subsequently advanced to the rank of a Dutch captain, a Swedish Field Marshal, and in Scotland became lord general in command of the Covenanters, privy councillor, captain of Edinburgh Castle, Lord Balgonie and Earl of Leven. for more click here

William Laud

Friday, December 23rd, 2011

Laud was born in a house on Broad Street in Reading, of comparatively lowly origins; his father, also named William, was a cloth merchant (a fact about which Laud was to remain sensitive throughout his career). He was baptised at St Laurence’s Church in Reading.He was educated at Reading School and, through a White Scholarship, St John’s College, Oxford. for more click here

When Episcopacy was imposed upon the people

Friday, December 23rd, 2011

Charles, with great solemnity, was crowned king of Scotland, England, France, and Ireland, by the Bishop of St. Andrews, who placed the crown upon his head; and on the i8th July he left Edinburgh
on his return to London. Under the mal-influence of the zealot Laud ruin and civil war soon came, when Episcopacy was imposed upon the people. A committee of covenanters was speedily formed at Edinburgh, and when the king’s commissioner arrived, in 1638, he found the Castle beset by armed men. His efforts at mediation were futile; and famous old ” Jenny Geddes ” took the initiative by dashing her stool at the Dean’s head in St. Giles’s church. But Jenny’s real name is now said to have been Barbara Hamilton. All Scotland was up in arms against Episcopacy. War was resolved on,
and with a noble ardour thousands of trained Scottish officers and soldiers, who had been pushing their fortune by the shores of the Elbe and the Rhine, in Sweden and Germany, came pouring
home to enrol under the banner of the Covenant;a general attack was concerted on every fortress in Scotland; and the surprise of Edinburgh was undertaken by the commander of the army, Sir Alexander Leslie of Balgonie, Marshal of Sweden under Gustavus Adolphus—a soldier second to none in Europe.

source-Old and New Edinburgh

James Croft

Wednesday, December 21st, 2011

Sir James Croft PC (c.1518–4 September 1590), Lord Deputy of Ireland and MP for Herefordshire in the Parliament of England. for more click here

James Hamilton, Duke of Châtellerault

Wednesday, December 21st, 2011

James Hamilton, Duke of Châtellerault and 2nd Earl of Arran (c. 1516 – 22 January 1575) was a Scottish nobleman. for more click here

Articles of Leith

Wednesday, December 21st, 2011

The Articles of Leith were the terms of truce drawn up between the Protestant Lords of the Congregation and Mary of Guise, Regent of Scotland and signed on 25 July 1559. This negotiation was a step in the conflict that led to the Scottish Reformation. Although its immediate effect was the withdrawal of Protestant forces from Edinburgh, subsequent disputes over the content and observance of the treaty fuelled the crisis in Scotland. for more click here

William Drury

Wednesday, December 21st, 2011

Sir William Drury, Knt., (2 October 1527 – October 1579) was an English statesman and soldier, for more click here

Some Text